IMSI is one of several mathematical science research institutes funded by the Division of Mathematical Sciences at the National Science Foundation. The other currently funded institutes are

- the American Institute of Mathematics (AIM) in San Jose, California,
- the School of Mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey,
- the Institute for Computational and Experimental Research in Mathematics (ICERM) at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island,
- the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics at UCLA in Los Angeles, California,
- the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) in Berkeley, California, and
- the Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute (SAMSI) in the Research Triangle, North Carolina.

In addition, there are two alumni institutes: the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications (IMA) at the University of Minnesota and the Mathematical Biosciences Institute (MBI) at Ohio State.

The Math Institutes website provides an overview of activity at the math institutes, including upcoming events, highlights, videos, and efforts to promote diversity in the field and the profession through the Mathematical Sciences Institutes Diversity Initiative (MSIDI).